Present Perfect Tense

UNIT III
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
( Bentuk sekarang sudah selesai )
A.    Penggunaan
  1. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau atau telah terjadi dan masih ada hubungannya dengan sekarang.
  2. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang telah selesai terjadi, pada waktu yang tidak tertentu (indefinite time) sebelum waktu sekarang.
  3. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa atau kejadian yang selesai pada waktu singkat ataupun baru saja terjadi.
B.     Keterangan waktu
  1. For ….
-          For several minutes
-          For (an hour, two hours ….)
-          For (a day, two days ….)
-          For (a week, two weeks ….)
-          For (a year, 2 years ….)
  1. Since
-          since 1 o’clock ….                        -    since last (week ….)
-          since … ago                                  -    since last (month, year)
-          since a week ago                           -    since (January ….)
-          since last (friday ….)
  1. already                                                            11.   at last
  2. yet (-)                                                  12.   before
  3. never                                                   13.   several times
  4. ever (?)                                                14.   once, twice, three times ….
  5. recently
  6. just
  7. lately
  8. finally
C.     Susunan kalimat
  1. Positive (+)
(+) Subject + has/have + V III
Subject
has/have
Verb III
Object
I
You
We
They
have
written
bought
cleaned
played
a story
a shirt
the room
tennis
He
She
It
has
gone
given
swum
to school
a present
very fast
  1. Negative sentence (-)
(-) Subject + has/have + not + verb III
Subject
has/have
not
Verb III
Object
I
You
We
They
have
not
written
bought
cleaned
played
a story
a shirt
the room
tennis
He
She
It
has
gone
given
swum
to school
a present
very fast
  1. Interrogative (?)
(?) Have/Has + Subject + V III ?
Has/Have
Subject
Verb III
Object
Have
I
You
We
They
written
bought
cleaned
played
a story
a shirt
the room
tennis
Has
He
She
It
gone
given
swum
to school
a present
very fast

Present Perfect Tense

I have sung
The present perfect tense is a rather important tense in English, but it gives speakers of some languages a difficult time. That is because it uses concepts or ideas that do not exist in those languages. In fact, the structure of the present perfect tense is very simple. The problems come with the use of the tense. In addition, there are some differences in usage between British and American English.
In this lesson we look at the structure and use of the present perfect, followed by a quiz to check your understanding:
  • Structure: how to make the present perfect tense

  • Use: when and why to use the present perfect tense

  • For and Since with the present perfect tense. What's the difference?

The present perfect tense is really a very interesting tense, and a very useful one. Try not to translate the present perfect tense into your language. Just try to accept the concepts of this tense and learn to "think" present perfect! You will soon learn to like the present perfect tense!
The present perfect simple tense is used to talk about a past time, which has very strong meaning for the present.

Present Perfect Simple Timeline

For example:
Q) Where's Jane?
A) She has gone out. She should be back in an hour.
We form the present perfect simple by using the auxilliary verb have/has and the -ed form of the regular verb (the past participle) irregular verb forms have to be learned:
Statements
+
Statements
-
Questions Short answer
+
Short answer
-
I've worked. I haven't worked. Have I worked? Yes, I have. No, I haven't.
He's worked. He hasn't worked. Has he worked? Yes, he has. No, he hasn't.
She's worked. She hasn't worked. Has she worked? Yes, she has. No, she hasn't.
It's worked. It hasn't worked. Has it worked? Yes, it has. No, it hasn't.
You've worked. You haven't worked. Have you worked? Yes you have. No, you haven't.
We've worked. We haven't worked. Have we worked? Yes we have. No, we haven't.
They've worked. They haven't worked. Have they worked? Yes they have. No, they haven't.
The present perfect simple is used to discuss events that have just been completed at the moment of speaking.
For example:
Q) Have you done your homework?"
A) "Yes, I've just finished it."
It is often used to suggest that a past action still has an effect upon something happening in the present.
For example:
"The pound has fallen against the dollar."
It is also used to discuss unfinished time.
For example:
Q) Have you done your homework today?
A) No, I haven't done it yet.
Note - You are talking about today and today isn't finished, so you may do your homework later!
Q) Have you ever been to England?"
A) "Yes I have."
Note - You are talking about something that has happened in your life and your life isn't finished!

You can also use the present perfect to discuss something from the past but you don't want to say exactly when.
For example:
Q) "Are you learning any languages?"
A) "Yes, I've begun to learn English."
This tense is often used to discuss events that have been happening over a period of time, but aren't finished yet.
For example:
Q) "How long have you studied English for?"
A) "I've studied English for 2 years now."
However it is better (grammatically speaking) to use the Present Perfect Continuous to express yourself in this way.
For example:
Q) "How long have you been studying English for?" A) "I've been studying English for 2 years now."
!Note It is always for a length of time and since a point in time

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